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Guide how to create real chassis

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All today vehicles in the ST have not animated wheelhubs and steering system with arms and rods. This guide will explain to You how to create full animated suspension and steering system.

 

There are 3 basic concept of the car or truck chassis :

1. solid axles

2. independent suspension with parallel arms

3. swinging halfaxles used on the Tatra trucks

 

 

TATRA CHASSIS

Some days ago I was able to make realistic chassis of the Czech truck Tatra. It has unique suspension and for 8x8 complex steering system. All these things are now full animated. Tatra is on the Workshop in the WIP phase. Details are described in this thread - http://www.oovee.co.uk/forum/topic/12953-how-to-set-up-swinging-halfaxles

 

Real 8x8 chassis with KingFrame suspension on the rear axles, standard air bellowses on the front axles, main steering arm is between 1st and 2nd axles :

 

09-t158-chassis-8x8.jpg

 

Scheme :

 

l9xdc.png

XML with possibility for adjust clearance :

	<PhysicsModel Mesh="trucks/j8">
		<Body 
			Mass="4000"
			CenterOfMassOffset="(0; 0; 0)"
			ImpactType="Truck"
		>

			<Body Mass="100" ModelFrame="main_steer_cdt" Collisions="None"  >
				<Constraint AxisLocal="(0;0;1)" MinLimit="-32" MaxLimit="32" Type="Hinge" Name="ChassisSteerMain">
					<Motor Damping="1" Force="150" Tau="0.04" Type="Position" />
				</Constraint>
			</Body>

			<Body Mass="1000" ModelFrame="pol001_cdt" Collisions="None" >
				<Constraint AxisLocal="(1;0;0)" MinLimit="-7" MaxLimit="13" Type="Hinge" Name="clr">
					<Motor Type="Spring" Spring="100000" Damping="30000"/>
				</Constraint>
				<Body Mass="5" ModelFrame="h1_cdt" Collisions="None" >
					<Constraint AxisLocal="(-1;0;0)" MinLimit="-32" MaxLimit="32" Type="Hinge" Name="ChassisSteer1">
						<Motor Type="Spring" Spring="100000" Damping="30000"/>
					</Constraint>
				</Body>
			</Body>


			<Body Mass="1000" ModelFrame="pol002_cdt" Collisions="None" >
				<Constraint AxisLocal="(-1;0;0)" MinLimit="-7" MaxLimit="13" Type="Hinge" Name="clr">
					<Motor Type="Spring" Spring="100000" Damping="30000"/>
				</Constraint>
				<Body Mass="5" ModelFrame="h2_cdt" Collisions="None" >
					<Constraint AxisLocal="(-1;0;0)" MinLimit="-32" MaxLimit="32" Type="Hinge" Name="ChassisSteer2">
						<Motor Type="Spring" Spring="100000" Damping="30000"/>
					</Constraint>
				</Body>
			</Body>


			<Body Mass="1000" ModelFrame="pol003_cdt" Collisions="None" >
				<Constraint AxisLocal="(1;0;0)" MinLimit="-7" MaxLimit="13" Type="Hinge" Name="clr">
					<Motor Type="Spring" Spring="100000" Damping="30000"/>
				</Constraint>
				<Body Mass="5" ModelFrame="h3_cdt" Collisions="None" >
					<Constraint AxisLocal="(-1;0;0)" MinLimit="-20" MaxLimit="20" Type="Hinge" Name="ChassisSteer3">
						<Motor Type="Spring" Spring="100000" Damping="30000"/>
					</Constraint>
				</Body>
			</Body>

			<Body Mass="1000" ModelFrame="pol004_cdt" Collisions="None" >
				<Constraint AxisLocal="(-1;0;0)" MinLimit="-7" MaxLimit="13" Type="Hinge" Name="clr">
					<Motor Type="Spring" Spring="100000" Damping="30000"/>
				</Constraint>
				<Body Mass="5" ModelFrame="h4_cdt" Collisions="None" >
					<Constraint AxisLocal="(-1;0;0)" MinLimit="-20" MaxLimit="20" Type="Hinge" Name="ChassisSteer4">
						<Motor Type="Spring" Spring="100000" Damping="30000"/>
					</Constraint>
				</Body>
			</Body>

			<Body Mass="1000" ModelFrame="pol005_cdt" Collisions="None" >
				<Constraint AxisLocal="(1;0;0)" MinLimit="-7" MaxLimit="13" Type="Hinge" Name="clr">
					<Motor Type="Spring" Spring="175000" Damping="30000"/>
				</Constraint>
			</Body>

			<Body Mass="1000" ModelFrame="pol006_cdt" Collisions="None" >
				<Constraint AxisLocal="(-1;0;0)" MinLimit="-7" MaxLimit="13" Type="Hinge" Name="clr">
					<Motor Type="Spring" Spring="175000" Damping="30000"/>
				</Constraint>
			</Body>

			<Body Mass="1000" ModelFrame="pol007_cdt" Collisions="None" >
				<Constraint AxisLocal="(1;0;0)" MinLimit="-7" MaxLimit="13" Type="Hinge" Name="clr">
					<Motor Type="Spring" Spring="175000" Damping="30000"/>
				</Constraint>
			</Body>

			<Body Mass="1000" ModelFrame="pol008_cdt" Collisions="None" >
				<Constraint AxisLocal="(-1;0;0)" MinLimit="-7" MaxLimit="13" Type="Hinge" Name="clr">
					<Motor Type="Spring" Spring="175000" Damping="30000"/>
				</Constraint>
			</Body>
		</Body>

	</PhysicsModel>

	<ControlledConstraints>
		<Constraint Id="main_steer_cdt" IsLinkedSteering="true" Name="ChassisSteerMain" />	

		<Constraint Id="Clearance" Name="clr" />	

		<Constraint Id="h1_cdt" IsLinkedSteering="true" Name="ChassisSteer1" />	
		<Constraint Id="h2_cdt" IsLinkedSteering="true" Name="ChassisSteer2" />	
		<Constraint Id="h3_cdt" IsLinkedSteering="true" Name="ChassisSteer3" />	
		<Constraint Id="h4_cdt" IsLinkedSteering="true" Name="ChassisSteer4" />	
	</ControlledConstraints>


All wheels has as parents appropriate halfaxle cdts :

	<Wheels HardpointDefaultY="0.57" HardpointDefaultZ="1.05" >
		<Wheel _template="FirstAxle" HardpointX="1.92" DefaultWheelType="j_f_l" ParentFrame="pol001_cdt" />
		<Wheel _template="FirstAxle" HardpointX="1.92" DefaultWheelType="j_f_r" RightSide="true" ParentFrame="pol002_cdt" />
		<Wheel _template="MidAxle" HardpointX="-0.258" DefaultWheelType="j_f_l" ParentFrame="pol003_cdt" />
		<Wheel _template="MidAxle" HardpointX="-0.258" DefaultWheelType="j_f_r" RightSide="true" ParentFrame="pol004_cdt" />
		<Wheel _template="RearAxle" HardpointX="-2.59" DefaultWheelType="j_r_l" ParentFrame="pol005_cdt" />
		<Wheel _template="RearAxle" HardpointX="-2.59" DefaultWheelType="j_r_r" RightSide="true" ParentFrame="pol006_cdt" />
		<Wheel _template="RearAxle" HardpointX="-4.051" DefaultWheelType="j_r_l" ParentFrame="pol007_cdt" />
		<Wheel _template="RearAxle" HardpointX="-4.051" DefaultWheelType="j_r_r" RightSide="true" ParentFrame="pol008_cdt" />
	</Wheels>

Object explanation :

pol00x_cdt is halfaxle, initial modeled position of the halfaxles is with zero camber for perfect wheel to halfaxle perpendicularity

hx_cdt is wheelhub with steering arm

main_steer_cdt is main steering arm

constraint clr is for change clearance via Advanced menu

 

Early stage of the chassis :

 

2njhrbq.jpg

 

Final version :

 

24y20ds.jpg

... and test drive https://youtu.be/eolMaYYAs6c

... and here is archive containing game files and model in MAX 2013 format https://www.ulozto.net/!dfW1BFAnZ/tatra-chassis-7z

 

 

SOLID AXLES

Yesterday, I realised full animated steering system for Bregel's new Toyota. This setup is based on the solid axles solution. Scheme for front axle is very simple :

 

folj87.png

And XML code :

<PhysicsModel Mesh="trucks/landcruiser">
		<Body
			ImpactType="Truck"
			Mass="1300"
			CenterOfMassOffset="(0; 0; 0)"
		>

			<Body Mass="5" ModelFrame="main_steer_cdt" Collisions="None" >
				<Constraint AxisLocal="(0;0;1)" MinLimit="-35" MaxLimit="35" Type="Hinge" Name="ChassisSteerMain">
					<Motor Type="Spring" Spring="100000" Damping="30000"/>
				</Constraint>
			</Body>


			<Body Mass="200" ModelFrame="arm_cdt" Collisions="None" >
				<Constraint AxisLocal="(-1;0;0)" MinLimit="-10" MaxLimit="10" Type="Hinge" Name="clr">
					<Motor Type="Spring" Spring="20000" Damping="3000"/>
				</Constraint>
				<Body Mass="400" ModelFrame="front_axle_cdt" Collisions="None" >
					<Constraint AxisLocal="(1;0;0)" MinLimit="-10" MaxLimit="10" Type="Hinge" >
						<Motor Type="Spring" Spring="1000" Damping="300"/>
					</Constraint>
					<Body Mass="5" ModelFrame="h1_cdt" Collisions="None" >
						<Constraint AxisLocal="(0;0;1)" MinLimit="-35" MaxLimit="35" Type="Hinge" Name="ChassisSteer1">
							<Motor Type="Spring" Spring="100000" Damping="30000"/>
						</Constraint>
					</Body>
					<Body Mass="5" ModelFrame="h2_cdt" Collisions="None" >
						<Constraint AxisLocal="(0;0;1)" MinLimit="-35" MaxLimit="35" Type="Hinge" Name="ChassisSteer2">
							<Motor Type="Spring" Spring="100000" Damping="30000"/>
						</Constraint>
					</Body>

				</Body>
			</Body>
		</Body>
	</PhysicsModel>
.
.
.
	<ControlledConstraints>
		<Constraint Id="main_steer_cdt" IsLinkedSteering="true" Name="ChassisSteerMain" />	
		<Constraint Id="h1_cdt" IsLinkedSteering="true" Name="ChassisSteer1" />	
		<Constraint Id="h2_cdt" IsLinkedSteering="true" Name="ChassisSteer2" />	
	</ControlledConstraints>

Front wheels has as parent front_axle_cdt :

	<Wheels
		HardpointDefaultY="0.434"
		HardpointDefaultZ="0.8"
	>
		<Wheel _template="FrontWheel" HardpointX="1.56" ParentFrame="front_axle_cdt"/>
		<Wheel _template="FrontWheel" HardpointX="1.56" RightSide="true" ParentFrame="front_axle_cdt" />
		<Wheel _template="RearWheel" HardpointX="-1.572" />
		<Wheel _template="RearWheel" HardpointX="-1.572" RightSide="true" />
	</Wheels>

Detail of the wheel hub and part of the steering system :

 

9rnn9g.jpg

 

Rear axle is standard and very good known for all, who made vehicles for ST.

Here is test drive :

https://youtu.be/44qD7MUdWAo

 

Very simple 4x4 chassis game files and MAX 2013 : https://www.ulozto.net/!9rh37Fvny/4x4-7z

 

INDEPENDENT SUSPENSION with parallel arms

 

Concept is again simple, it is front view :

 

2chvpc9.png

Suspension is emulated by Prismatic constrain that allow up - down movement of the whub_susp cdts with Chassis_Bone_cdt as parent, animated wheel hub is children of the whub_susp connected by Hinge constraint allowing rotation around Y axis for steering simulation. Wheel has whub_susp cdts as its parent.

 

Final XML code :

	<PhysicsModel Mesh="trucks/4x4_ifs">
		<Body
			ImpactType="Truck"
			Mass="800"
			CenterOfMassOffset="(-1; 0; 0)"
		>

			<Body Mass="50" ModelFrame="main_steer_cdt" Collisions="None" >
				<Constraint AxisLocal="(0;-1;0)" MinLimit="-35" MaxLimit="35" Type="Hinge" Name="ChassisSteerMain">
					<Motor Type="Spring" Spring="10000" Damping="300"/>
				</Constraint>
			</Body>	

			<Body Mass="400" ModelFrame="sh1_cdt" Collisions="None" >
				<Constraint AxisLocal="(0;1;0)" MinLimit="-0.2" MaxLimit="0.2" Type="Prismatic" MalleableStrength="1.3">
					<Motor Type="Spring" Spring="25000" Damping="500"/>
				</Constraint>
				<Body Mass="5" ModelFrame="h1_cdt" Collisions="None" >
					<Constraint AxisLocal="(0;-1;0)" MinLimit="-35" MaxLimit="35" Type="Hinge" Name="ChassisSteer1">
						<Motor Type="Spring" Spring="100000" Damping="300"/>
					</Constraint>
				</Body>
			</Body>

			<Body Mass="400" ModelFrame="sh2_cdt" Collisions="None" >
				<Constraint AxisLocal="(0;1;0)" MinLimit="-0.2" MaxLimit="0.2" Type="Prismatic" MalleableStrength="1.3">
					<Motor Type="Spring" Spring="25000" Damping="500"/>
				</Constraint>
				<Body Mass="5" ModelFrame="h2_cdt" Collisions="None" >
					<Constraint AxisLocal="(0;-1;0)" MinLimit="-35" MaxLimit="35" Type="Hinge" Name="ChassisSteer2">
						<Motor Type="Spring" Spring="100000" Damping="300"/>
					</Constraint>
				</Body>
			</Body>

		</Body>
	</PhysicsModel>
.
.
.
	<ControlledConstraints>
		<Constraint Id="main_steer_cdt" IsLinkedSteering="true" Name="ChassisSteerMain" />	
		<Constraint Id="h1_cdt" IsLinkedSteering="true" Name="ChassisSteer1" />	
		<Constraint Id="h2_cdt" IsLinkedSteering="true" Name="ChassisSteer2" />	
	</ControlledConstraints>

Very simply demo vehicle with independent front suspension and rear solid axle :

 

axnxpj.jpg

 

Steering is simulated with simple arm.

 

Download link for education MAX 2013 model and gamefiles are at https://www.ulozto.net/!8jje6ENye/4x4ifs-7z

 

 

I hope, this tutorial will help You to make even beter cars and trucks for SpinTires.

Edited by V12
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Looking at the picture just send my memory back when I was at school in the physics class and looking to the whiteboard with blurred eyes. I was so sleepy that day  :lol:.

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can you add some Demo files on how to make them?

please my TJ would love to have realistic axles and steering

 

edit: sorry 

thanks for the files

Edited by >Forces<

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Yes, ofcourse. But please patience. I have 2 children an wife, not only computer :)

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Picture of the final version chassis has been added.

Files for Tatra has been added.

Edited by V12

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Nicely done, V12. Someone was asking me for the same tutorial. Good work!

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So do moving steering wheels work in the same manner as the moving wheel hubs, in the fact that it islinkedsteering="true" and then also on a hinge or rotating joint.

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you are not working with the <axles> at all are you. I am having troubles combining the normal axlebones you reference in under truckdata with bones you reference under the body tag.

 

for example I have a bone connected to steering so the brakepads swing while steering.

the steering bone is under the axlebone in the hierachy, buuut either the brakepad steers or it moves with the axlebone, cant do both.

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this type of setup is really good fro ik bones but I'm also having some issues with my front wheels the wiggle allot when turning and if onw wheel hits a rock the whole truck starts bugging in the air (like the legacy 4 addon max bug)

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i fixed my problem with just ditching the axles from truckdata and adding them as a prismatic bone in the body tag

 

@forces

 

make the mass higher

 

Mass="5" from the example is crap, i wouldnt go lower than 100

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i'm using a 200 mass setup for the arm 400 for the axle  a mass of 5 is ok for the knuckle  if you make a 1cmx1cmx1cm cube as the cdt

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I developed new and better suspension for Tatra chassis, this new dosn't need adjustable clearance. For more details look at http://www.oovee.co.uk/forum/topic/12953-how-to-set-up-swinging-halfaxles/page-5?do=findComment&comment=99127

Now, I'm thinking about better suspension for solid axle setup of the big rig with flexible frame. Solution with one arm and axle (first topic) doesn't provide realistic chassis twist in the rough terrain. New solution based on the additional Prismatic constraints used on the updated Tatra Phoenix 8x8 (http://steamcommunity.com/sharedfiles/filedetails/?id=682912136) will be much better.

 

New scheme :

 

1zx01hf.png

 

Front axle has parent bone connected to the front bone with Prismatic constraint with Force="0", axle is connected to the parent bone via Hinge constraint, Force="0".

Front wheel has front axle as parent, parent for suspension substitution upper end is front bone, rear axles are standard type with rear bone as wheel parent. Front bone and rear bone are connected with hinge constraint with Motor for simulation of the frame twist. Suspension is simulated via additional Prismatic constraint and spring type motor with appropriate Force parameter.

Edited by V12
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Today, I will try optimize Tatra chassis. There is one little problem - in case of the extreme rally drive, suspension travels over its limits defined by Constraints MinLimit and MaxLimit. I will try remove d00X_cdt and in the additional constraints for t00X_cdt as parent will be main chassis bone BoneCH. Travel range for Prismatic constraint will be changed from MinLimit -0.3 / MaxLimit 0.3 to values MinLimit -0.5 / MaxLimit 0.1

I'm very curious for result...

Edited by V12
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Final version of the Phoenix 8x8 has been uploaded on the workshop. Thanks to the localhost's ST+v7 has unique feature - upgradable transmission. Standard one is 5 staged, this upgraded simulate semiautomatic Norgren 10 stage gearbox. But attention, result of the combination Norgren transmission and army wheels on the custom V12 is horrible fuel consumption. But truck is pretty damn fast and almost unstoppable. 45 degree climb is not problem. Trial truck too :)

Edited by V12

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I made attempt to create realistic front axle on Praga V3S based on the last my development :

 

14y7tyd.jpg

 

Here is XML :

<PhysicsModel Mesh="trucks/pragatt_chassis">

      <Constraint
         ModelFrameChild="spojovacka_cdt"
         ModelFrameParent="wh2_cdt"
         Type="UnlimitedHinge"
         AxisLocal="(0;1;0)"
         PivotOffset="(0;0;-1.78)">
      </Constraint>


      <Constraint
         ModelFrameChild="t1_cdt"
         ModelFrameParent="FrontBone_cdt"

         Type="Prismatic"
         AxisLocal="(0;1;0)"
         MinLimit="-0.1"
         MaxLimit="0.2">
         <Motor Type="Spring" Spring="100000" Damping="3000"/>
      </Constraint>
      <Constraint
         ModelFrameChild="t2_cdt"
         ModelFrameParent="FrontBone_cdt"

         Type="Prismatic"
         AxisLocal="(0;1;0)"
         MinLimit="-0.1"
         MaxLimit="0.2">
         <Motor Type="Spring" Spring="100000" Damping="3000"/>
      </Constraint>


      <Body
         Mass="4000"
         ImpactType="Truck"
      >

         <Body Mass="50" ModelFrame="rLMF" Collisions="None" AngularDamping="3.0" >
            <Constraint AxisLocal="(0;0;1)" MinLimit="-65" MaxLimit="0" Type="Hinge" >
            </Constraint>
         </Body>

         <Body Mass="50" ModelFrame="rRMF" Collisions="None"  AngularDamping="3.0">
            <Constraint AxisLocal="(0;0;1)" MinLimit="-65" MaxLimit="0" Type="Hinge" >
            </Constraint>
         </Body>



         <Body
            ModelFrame="FrontBone_cdt"
            Mass="2000"
            ImpactType="Truck"
         >
            <Constraint
               Type="Hinge"
               AxisLocal="(1;0;0)"
               MinLimit="-7"
               MaxLimit="7"
            >
               <Motor
                  Type="Spring"
                  Spring="120000"
                  Damping="80000"
               />
            </Constraint>

            <Body
               ModelFrame="front_axle_cdt"
               Mass="500"
               ImpactType="Truck"
            >
               <Constraint Type="Fixed" MalleableStrength="0.001" />

               <Body Mass="50" ModelFrame="wh1_cdt" Collisions="None"  >
                  <Constraint AxisLocal="(0;-1;0)" MinLimit="-40" MaxLimit="40" Name="ChassisSteer1" Type="Hinge" >
                        <Motor Damping="1.0" Force="150" Tau="1" Type="Position" />
                  </Constraint>

                  <Body Mass="50" ModelFrame="spojovacka_cdt" Collisions="None"  >
                     <Constraint AxisLocal="(0;1;0)" Type="UnlimitedHinge" >
                     </Constraint>
                  </Body>
               </Body>

               <Body Mass="50" ModelFrame="wh2_cdt" Collisions="None"  >
                  <Constraint AxisLocal="(0;-1;0)" MinLimit="-40" MaxLimit="40" Name="ChassisSteer2" Type="Hinge" >
                        <Motor Damping="1.0" Force="15000" Tau="1" Type="Position" />
                  </Constraint>
               </Body>

               <Body Mass="250" ModelFrame="t1_cdt" Collisions="None"  >
                  <Constraint AxisLocal="(1;0;0)" MinLimit="-40" MaxLimit="40" Type="Hinge" >
                  </Constraint>
               </Body>

               <Body Mass="250" ModelFrame="t2_cdt" Collisions="None"  >
                  <Constraint AxisLocal="(-10;0;0)" MinLimit="-40" MaxLimit="40" Type="Hinge" >
                  </Constraint>
               </Body>


            </Body>

            <Body
               ModelFrame="CabinBone_cdt"
               Mass="2000"
               ImpactType="Truck"
            >
               <Constraint
                  Type="Hinge"
                  AxisLocal="(1;0;0)"
                  MinLimit="-14"
                  MaxLimit="14"
               >
                  <Motor
                     Type="Spring"
                     Spring="120000"
                     Damping="60000"
                  />
               </Constraint>

               <Body Mass="50" ModelFrame="steering_w" Collisions="None"  >
                  <Constraint AxisLocal="(0;-1;0)" MinLimit="-360" MaxLimit="360" Name="ChassisSteer" Type="Hinge" >
                        <Motor Damping="1.0" Force="150" Tau="0.04" Type="Position" />
                  </Constraint>
               </Body>

            </Body>
         </Body>

      </Body>
   </PhysicsModel>

Where :

front_axle_cdt - bone for front axle attached to the front portion of the truck's frame by formal Fixed constraint with minimum connection force (MalleableStrength="0.001")

wh1_cdt, wh2_cdt are wheelhubs, its parent is front_axle_cdt

t1_cdt, t2_cdt - bones for suspension simulation with additional constraints connected to the frame's front portion bone. This setup allow simulate frame twist along X axis.

spojovacka_cdt - bone for connection rod of the steering

Edited by V12
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thats really cool V12

also you hit the spot with the frame twist and the 3 pivot point Exo-cage it looks awesome

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To get the limit of 360 -360 not necessarily MinLimit and MaxLimit set.

This settings default  for "Hinge"

(MalleableStrength="0.001") - What I missed.

Upd:

Yes indeed description was...

Edited by _Dzen_

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V3S is updated at http://steamcommunity.com/sharedfiles/filedetails/?id=636610208

Changes :

- new 4 stage transmission as in the reality

- fully animated front axle with movable wheel hubs, steering arms and rods with frame twisting

- trial truck equiped with hydraulic powersteering, steering is faster than standard truck without it, on the front axle has been added movable hydraulic cylinder

- small changes on the wheels

- standard truck now can tow standard trailers

Edited by V12
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Do You remember my Juggernaut with 11 shaft's madness ?

I'm upgrading its chassis with solution described at http://www.oovee.co.uk/forum/topic/12997-guide-how-to-create-real-chassis/?do=findComment&comment=99250, but with duplicated Prismatic constraints for suspension simulation. Wheelhubs and steering rods are finished and looks amazing. Today, I want make hydraulic cylinders for powersteering.

 

Stay tuned, pictures will be added later.

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